What did guy de maupassant think of the eiffel tower11.07.2020
The Eiffel Tower (/ ? a? f ?l / EYE-f?l; French: tour Eiffel [tu???f?l] ()) is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, lovestoryen.com is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower.. Locally nicknamed "La dame de fer" (French for "Iron Lady"), it was constructed from to as the entrance to the World's Fair and was. It wasn't always such an attraction: when it was constructed, hundreds of artists protested against it, claiming the iron structure will ruin Paris. The French writer Guy de Maupassant used to eat his lunch in the tower, because that was the only spot where he didn't have to see it.
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Apr 09, · The Eiffel Tower is officially opened. (Not everyone in France was a fan; author Guy de Maupassant ate lunch every day at the tower’s base restaurant, because, he said, “inside the restaurant was one of the few places where I could sit and not actually see the Tower!”). 9. Did Richard Petty ever crash his race car? The King was involved in many crashes, including a nasty one at the Daytona Richard Petty won his last race on July 4, Did Richard Petty’s great success go to his head? No, he remained a favorite with fans because of his friendliness. Unit 1, Parts of Speech It wasn’t “going back”, because I never started right out of high school like most did. Instead, I waited many many years.. to start. And you know what, that’s okay! As it shows and I said, I started in Yes, you might say “Dang.. took ya long enough”.. but I say “I never gave up”. Life happens, you lose focus, classes slow.
It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel , whose company designed and built the tower. Locally nicknamed " La dame de fer " French for "Iron Lady" , it was constructed from to as the entrance to the World's Fair and was initially criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world.
The tower is metres 1, ft tall, about the same height as an storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris.
Its base is square, measuring metres ft on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in It was the first structure in the world to surpass both the meter and meter mark in height.
Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in , it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level's upper platform is m ft above the ground — the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels.
The climb from ground level to the first level is over steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually accessible only by lift.
It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed Exposition Universelle , a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, and other embellishments.
The new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier, and Sauvestre had taken out, and the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of under the company name. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which effectively made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a m ft four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars.
On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals, which, a month later, decided that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or lacking in details.
After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January This was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, and granted him 1. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years.
He later established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds. Prior to the Eiffel Tower's construction, no structure had ever been constructed to a height of m or even m for the matter,  and many people believed it was impossible.
These objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering.
It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" one member for each metre of the tower's height was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as William-Adolphe Bouguereau , Guy de Maupassant , Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. We, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name of slighted French taste, against the erection … of this useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower … To bring our arguments home, imagine for a moment a giddy, ridiculous tower dominating Paris like a gigantic black smokestack, crushing under its barbaric bulk Notre Dame, the Tour Saint-Jacques, the Louvre, the Dome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliated monuments will disappear in this ghastly dream.
And for twenty years … we shall see stretching like a blot of ink the hateful shadow of the hateful column of bolted sheet metal. Gustave Eiffel responded to these criticisms by comparing his tower to the Egyptian pyramids : "My tower will be the tallest edifice ever erected by man.
Will it not also be grandiose in its way? And why would something admirable in Egypt become hideous and ridiculous in Paris? Indeed, Garnier was a member of the Tower Commission that had examined the various proposals, and had raised no objection. Eiffel was similarly unworried, pointing out to a journalist that it was premature to judge the effect of the tower solely on the basis of the drawings, that the Champ de Mars was distant enough from the monuments mentioned in the protest for there to be little risk of the tower overwhelming them, and putting the aesthetic argument for the tower: "Do not the laws of natural forces always conform to the secret laws of harmony?
Some of the protesters changed their minds when the tower was built; others remained unconvinced. By , it had become a symbol of Paris and of France after Guillaume Apollinaire wrote a nationalist poem in the shape of the tower a calligram to express his feelings about the war against Germany. Work on the foundations started on 28 January The west and north legs, being closer to the river Seine , were more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-air caissons 15 m 49 ft long and 6 m 20 ft in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m 72 ft  to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m 20 ft thick.
Each of these slabs supported a block of limestone with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork. Each shoe was anchored to the stonework by a pair of bolts 10 cm 4 in in diameter and 7. The foundations were completed on 30 June, and the erection of the ironwork began. The visible work on-site was complemented by the enormous amount of exacting preparatory work that took place behind the scenes: the drawing office produced 1, general drawings and 3, detailed drawings of the 18, different parts needed.
No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit, it was sent back to the factory for alteration.
In all, 18, pieces were joined together using 2. At first, the legs were constructed as cantilevers , but about halfway to the first level construction was paused to create a substantial timber scaffold. This renewed concerns about the structural integrity of the tower, and sensational headlines such as "Eiffel Suicide!
They made use of the guides for the lifts which were to be fitted in the four legs. The critical stage of joining the legs at the first level was completed by the end of March Although construction involved on-site employees,  due to Eiffel's safety precautions and the use of movable gangways, guardrails and screens, only one person died. Equipping the tower with adequate and safe passenger lifts was a major concern of the government commission overseeing the Exposition.
Although some visitors could be expected to climb to the first level, or even the second, lifts clearly had to be the main means of ascent. Lead weights on some links of the upper or return sections of the chains counterbalanced most of the car's weight. The car was pushed up from below, not pulled up from above: to prevent the chain buckling, it was enclosed in a conduit.
At the bottom of the run, the chains passed around 3. Smaller sprockets at the top guided the chains. Installing lifts to the second level was more of a challenge because a straight track was impossible. No French company wanted to undertake the work.
The deadline for bids was extended but still no French companies put themselves forward, and eventually the contract was given to Otis in July The car was divided into two superimposed compartments, each holding 25 passengers, with the lift operator occupying an exterior platform on the first level.
Motive power was provided by an inclined hydraulic ram Five fixed sheaves were mounted higher up the leg, producing an arrangement similar to a block and tackle but acting in reverse, multiplying the stroke of the piston rather than the force generated. The hydraulic pressure in the driving cylinder was produced by a large open reservoir on the second level.
After being exhausted from the cylinder, the water was pumped back up to the reservoir by two pumps in the machinery room at the base of the south leg.
This reservoir also provided power to the lifts to the first level. A pair of 81 m ft hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level, reaching nearly halfway up to the third level. One lift car was mounted on top of these rams: cables ran from the top of this car up to sheaves on the third level and back down to a second car.
Each car only travelled half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were required to change lifts halfway by means of a short gangway. The ton cars each held 65 passengers. The main structural work was completed at the end of March and, on 31 March, Eiffel celebrated by leading a group of government officials, accompanied by representatives of the press, to the top of the tower.
At pm, Eiffel hoisted a large Tricolour to the accompaniment of a gun salute fired at the first level. There was still work to be done, particularly on the lifts and facilities, and the tower was not opened to the public until nine days after the opening of the exposition on 6 May; even then, the lifts had not been completed. The tower was an instant success with the public, and nearly 30, visitors made the 1,step climb to the top before the lifts entered service on 26 May.
After dark, the tower was lit by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon sent out three beams of red, white and blue light. Two searchlights mounted on a circular rail were used to illuminate various buildings of the exposition.
The daily opening and closing of the exposition were announced by a cannon at the top. On the second level, the French newspaper Le Figaro had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition, Le Figaro de la Tour , was made. At the top, there was a post office where visitors could send letters and postcards as a memento of their visit.
Graffitists were also catered for: sheets of paper were mounted on the walls each day for visitors to record their impressions of the tower. Gustave Eiffel described some of the responses as vraiment curieuse "truly curious". To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.
Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years. It was to be dismantled in , when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it should be easy to dismantle but as the tower proved to be valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit.
Eiffel made use of his apartment at the top of the tower to carry out meteorological observations , and also used the tower to perform experiments on the action of air resistance on falling bodies. For the Exposition Universelle , the lifts in the east and west legs were replaced by lifts running as far as the second level constructed by the French firm Fives-Lille. These had a compensating mechanism to keep the floor level as the angle of ascent changed at the first level, and were driven by a similar hydraulic mechanism to the Otis lifts, although this was situated at the base of the tower.
Hydraulic pressure was provided by pressurised accumulators located near this mechanism. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level.
The original lift in the south pillar was removed 13 years later. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour. Many innovations took place at the Eiffel Tower in the early 20th century. In , Father Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower. He found more at the top than expected, incidentally discovering what are known today as cosmic rays. On 17 November, an improved line transmitter was installed.
On two separate but related occasions in , the con artist Victor Lustig "sold" the tower for scrap metal.
His aircraft became entangled in an aerial belonging to a wireless station. Upon the German occupation of Paris in , the lift cables were cut by the French.
The tower was closed to the public during the occupation and the lifts were not repaired until When the Allies were nearing Paris in August , Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz , the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city.